What Are the Health Benefits of Turmeric?

Jun 21, 2017 | Food and Nutrition

The Dirt:

Turmeric products are popping up everywhere because this bold, orange spice is believed to help fight inflammation.
For centuries the turmeric root has been a staple in both Asian and Indian holistic medicine. Should we be taking turmeric supplements?

At D2D, we love investigating the marketing claims stamped on “good for you” ingredients. Do they live up to their claims? Or is this just another gimmick? Similar to our recent article on Apple Cider Vinegar, turmeric is a famed ‘superfood’ that has quickly risen in popularity and has been deemed a “cure-all” for various diseases. In the case of turmeric, this includes approximately 44 unrelated ailments that range from eye infections and itchy skin to cancer and Alzheimer’s.
Despite being used in cooking for decades, recent product launches have featured turmeric for its ability to fight inflammation. And because many long term diseases are associated with inflammation, turmeric has been linked to cancer-prevention, Alzheimer’s, lupus, Crohn’s, and other inflammatory diseases.

The Industry 

Since 2011, turmeric has become a very popular ingredient on the health food market. Mintel Market Research named this “super spice” a superfood to watch in 2016. From 2011 to 2016, of all global turmeric and curcumin supplements launched between May 2011 and April 2016, 30% of them were in North America. But, Europe and Asia are also experiencing turmeric supplement boom and have launched equally as many products as North America. So, we are seeing turmeric’s populary expand across three continents!
According to Stephanie Mattucci, a food scientist with Mintel, “Research on turmeric’s active compound, curcuminoids, has primarily focused on the compound’s anti-inflammatory benefits. Chronic inflammation has been associated with a wide range of major diseases, including arthritis, cardiovascular disease, and even cancer. Some of the potential benefits of turmeric include protection against these diseases, due the compound’s anti-inflammatory properties.” (Mintel)

The Health Benefits

The health benefits of turmeric are from a molecule in the plant called curcumin. Curcumin (and its bioactive compounds curuminoids) is believed to help reduce swelling in your body and thus has been dubbed an “anti-inflammatory molecule.” In clinical research, curcumin has demonstrated antioxidant qualities. According to the UCLA Alzheimer Translation center, curcumin has a “polyphenolic molecular structure.”
The turmeric root (image credit)
These polyphenol properties are what is believed to help fight inflammation in your body. (We have also discussed the role of polyphenols in our article “The Red Wine Diet.”) A polyphenol is a specific type of antioxidant that can be found in foods like red wine, dark chocolate, and turmeric. However, as we reviewed in “The Lowdown on Antioxidants,” while there is promising research into the ability for antioxidants to neutralize free radicals, it has not been conclusively proven through human trials.

What Does the Research Say?

With regards to its anti-inflammatory properties, most of the claims made for turmeric supplements have not been conclusively proven and thus it is not possible to make a verified claim regarding these supplements. However, there is a lot of promising research that has been performed and that is being used to design new trials, especially since turmeric is not toxic.
Inflammation: A noteworthy 2005 study determined that the curcumin compound demonstrated multiple beneficial properties, most notably its ability to act as an ‘anti-inflammatory agent’ and ‘oxygen radical scavenger.’
In science, it is generally understood that reactive oxygen radicals can cause inflammation. Because of its potential to hunt and collect these oxygen radicals, curcumin is believed to fight inflammation and act as an anti-inflammatory agent. The study asserted that curcumin “may exert its anti-inflammatory activity by inhibition of a number of different molecules that play a role in inflammation.” So, because curcumin is able to keep prevent damage-causing oxygen radicals it protects your body from having an inflammatory response.

Some of the many products that contain curcumin

This hypothesis was further discussed in a 2007 review that addressed the anti-inflammatory properties of the curcumin compound. Additionally, more current research has focused on the relationship between curcumin and specific inflammatory molecules. For example, a 2017 study determined curcumin was an effective inhibitor of Interleukin-6, which is considered a “pro-inflammatory molecule.” Like Interleukin-6, many of these pro-inflammatory molecules have have inhibited by curcumin in lab studies.
Alzheimer’s: A 2008 research analysis investigated curcumin’s ability to help treat Alzheimer’s, a neurodegenerative disease (AD). In addition to the anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin— which could help keep the symptoms of AD at bay—lab research has also indicated that curcumin may have the ability to protect your nerve-endings. The papers entitled, “The Effect of Curcumin (turmeric) on Alzheimer’s Disease: An Overview” determined that curcumin “will lead to a promising treatment to Alzheimer’s disease.”
When Alzheimer’s advances, one of the biggest developments of the disease is the ‘chronic’ inflammation of nerve cells in your body. If curcumin can effectively prevent an inflammatory response, it may help to prevent or treat AD in the future. A 2001 study also investigated the relationship between curcumin and Alzheimer’s prevention. The study, which was performed on rats determined that curcumin “may find clinical application for AD prevention.”
Curcumin has powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties; according to the scientists, these properties are believed to help ease Alzheimer’s symptoms caused by oxidation and inflammation. (Mishra, 2008)

Cholesterol: According to WebMD, there has been some promising research into turmeric’s ability to help regulate cholesterol. Research including human participants indicated that taking a turmeric supplement (containing curcumin) 2x a day over a three-month period reduced total cholesterol and specifically LDL cholesterol— the bad kind!
Overall, there is a significant amount of current and verified research that indicates curcumin is a strong antioxidant that may help inhibit an inflammatory response inside your body.

How much Turmeric should you be taking?

Several human trials have been conducted to determine the potential toxicity of turmeric supplements and powders and it has been deemed safe for consumption even at high doses.
There have been several trials that tested more reasonable daily doses (1,000-2,000mg), however in one particularly compelling study 25 human participants were given 8,000 milligrams of curcumin a day. To put that into perspective, in order to achieve this dosage you would have to eat about 40 teaspoons of turmeric a day. The study found no toxicity from curcumin in the participants. The trial was conducted over three-month period and curcumin was deemed safe for consumption. Regardless of whether taking turmeric is going to help your inflammation (remember every body is different), if taken in reasonable amounts it is not going to make you sick.
In 1 teaspoon of turmeric there are roughly 200 milligrams of curcumin. In a recent interview with the website Well and Good, Dr. Robin Berzin noted, “curcuminoids only comprise a small part of turmeric. If you want anti-inflammatory affects you need to get 500 to 1,000 milligrams of curcuminoids per day.” By that standard, to reap the benefits of turmeric you would need to incorporate at least 3 teaspoons, or 1 tablespoon, into your regimen.
The D2D team tried the golden milk latte with coconut milk, turmeric, vanilla, cinnamon, and a little honey. 
However, it is also important to note it is possible for some people to experience difficulty reaping the anti-inflammatory benefits of turmeric if it is being consumed on its own. For this reason, it is actually recommended that you take turmeric along with black pepper as it helps your body utilize the curcumin more effectively. This is because black pepper contains a compound called piperine that prevents your liver from breaking down the turmeric and thus enables a significant portion of the spice to remain in your body. This may help your body better utilize the curcumin compound. It has been written that black pepper helps absorption of the turmeric, but technically speaking that is not the case. Black pepper will help boost turmeric levels, however, eating healthy oils (like coconut oil) and foods containing a good fat will help your body with turmeric absorption.
A health bar or juice made with 20 grams of sugar and preservatives with a dash of an anti-inflammatory herb thrown in is so much more toxic and inflammatory than it is anti-inflammatory.”(Dr. Erin Berzin)

Turmeric shows promising health benefits, however it has not been conclusively proven with double blind studies that taking turmeric supplements will fight inflammation. Additionally, many of the popular turmeric products include high levels of sugar and might not be that good for you! If you do choose to add turmeric to your routine. It is recommended that you take the supplement along with oils or fat containing foods to promote absorption and drink 4-6oz of water!

The Bottom Line:

Research has identified curcumin’s ability to act as an anti-inflammatory agent by inhibiting pro-inflammatory molecules. There is a lot of potential for this antioxidant, however more research needs to be done. The degree to which turmeric is able to reduce inflammation is unknown and will affect individuals differently. Remember: every body is different!  

Resources:

Aggarwal, Bharat, and Kuzhuvelil Harikumar. “Potential therapeutic effects of curcumin, the anti-inflammatory agent, against neurodegenerative, cardiovascular, pulmonary, metabolic, autoimmune and neoplastic diseases.” Science Direct. N.p., 09 July 2008. Web. 21 June 2017. Chainani-Wu, N. “Safety and anti-inflammatory activity of curcumin: a component of tumeric (Curcuma longa).” Journal of alternative and complementary medicine (New York, N.Y.). U.S. National Library of Medicine, 9 Feb. 2003. Web. 21 June 2017. Easton, Mary S. “Curcumin.” UCLA Alzheimer Translation Center. University of Southern California, n.d. Web. 21 June 2017. Frautschy SA, Hu W. Phenolic anti inflammatory antioxidant reversal of b induced cognitive deficits and neuropathology. Neurobiol Aging. 2001;22:993–1005. Gotter, Ana. “7 Ways Turmeric Tea Benefits Your Health.” Healthline. Healthline Media, 14 Apr. 2017. Web. 21 June 2017. Greger, Michael, M.D. “Why Pepper Boosts Turmeric Blood Levels.” NutritionFacts.org. Nutrition Facts, 05 Feb. 2015. Web. 21 June 2017. Menon, V. P., and A. R. Sudheer. “Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin.” Advances in experimental medicine and biology. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web. 21 June 2017. “TURMERIC: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions and Warnings.” WebMD. WebMD, n.d. Web. 21 June 2017. “Turmeric Absorption.” Consumer Lab. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 June 2017. <https://www.consumerlab.com/answers/I recently read that turmeric is only effective if it is combined with black pepper. Is this true/turmeric_black_pepper/>.