Fat: Our New Friend!

Dec 28, 2016 | Health and Diet | 1 comment

The Dirt:

Now is the time to start planning your New Year’s resolutions. If you are thinking about cutting down on fat, you might want to give this a quick read first!

Fat is not the four letter word it once was. Here is why...

When you hear a food is “high in fat” you immediately think it is bad for you. While there is some truth to that,  you need to consider what type of fat you are looking at. Not all fats are created equal. Fatty acids are an extremely vast topic and in order to give your body proper nutrition, you need to understand the important role fat plays in your health.

Healthy, “fatty foods” are finally beginning to shake their bad reputation. Our new fatty friends, like avocados, nuts, and olive oil, have become increasingly popular due to their healthy fat content. As consumers, we are starting to see fats incorporated at almost every meal— avocado on toast, coconut oil used in cooking, a compliment of nut butters offered as nutritious snacks, and the list goes on…

In the past, saturated fat was thought to be linked to heart disease and strokes, but it turns out that this may have been a big, fat lie.

A 2010 meta-analysis published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition pooled together data from 21 studies and included almost 350,000 people tracked for an average of 14 years. This study concluded that there is no relationship between the intake of saturated fat and the incidence of heart disease or stroke.
(Siri-Tarino et al. 2010)

Educating Americans on proper fat consumption.

Foods with a higher fat content are finally making a comeback after they were wrongfully blamed for playing a large part in the rise of obesity in the United States. But, as we remain a nation with a growing obesity problem, it is very difficult for organizations like the U.S. Department of Health to begin recommending foods with a higher fat content. However, we are now finding ways that involve healthy eating to educate Americans on proper fat consumption. In February 2016, Mintel Global Market Research presented a 2016 Global Food + Drink Trend on how fat is shedding its stigma. The report noted, “confusion regarding ‘good’ vs. ‘bad’ fats has led the US Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee to recommend that the 2015 U.S. Dietary Guidelines focus on optimizing types of dietary fat rather than reducing fat intake. The committee hopes this will ‘encourage a healthier relationship with dietary fats.’” (Mintel, 2016).

Source: Bio-Kinetics

In January 2016, the U.S. Department of Agriculture released: New Dietary Guidelines to Encourage Healthy Eating Patterns to Prevent Chronic Diseases which includes recommendations to eat oils from plants (canola, corn, olive, peanut, safflower, soybean, and sunflower) as well as nuts, seeds, seafood, olives, and avocados in order to prevent chronic disease.

The Big Picture

Fat is actually a macronutrient and our body actually requires fat to function properly. While healthy foods with a high fat content may be dense in caloric value, they pack a very powerful punch. Healthy foods with a good fat content can provide energy and help maintain overall body health.

So while it may go against your instincts to eat butter or olive oil, here is why you should.

A healthy fat intake supports your brain, maintains cell membranes, and helps to cushion your organs for protection.

A healthy fat intake supports your brain, maintains cell membranes, and helps to cushion your organs for protection (this cushioning is particularly important in the case of injury). As far as your brain is concerned, certain fats (like omega-3 and omega-6) protect the nerve fibers and enable your brain to send messages faster. Fat also helps your body absorb vitamins, particularly the fat-soluble vitamins K, D, E, and A. Because of these benefits, the U.S. Department of Agriculture recommends we get roughly 20% – 35% of our daily calories from fat. So, if you consume 2,000 calories a day that should include between 400-700 calories from fat. But, keep in mind less than 200 of these calories should be saturated, to ensure the majority of your calories from is unsaturated. 

However, this is not to say you shouldn’t be careful with your fat intake. Your body stores excess fat in its cells until it is needed for energy. But, if you are taking in more fat than you are using for energy, your fat cells expand and you will probably notice your waistline start to increase…

Fat is made up of fatty acids and the amount of fatty acids that are present in food indicate how the food is classified—with either a high or low fat content. In addition to the amount of fatty acids present, you must also look at the most heavily prevailing type of fatty acid. The most heavily prevailing type of fatty acid indicates whether the food is high in either saturated or unsaturated fat.

A healthy amount of fat provides more energy per gram than both protein and carbohydrates.

One gram of fat = nine calories for energy, whereas one gram of carbohydrate or protein = only four grams for energy.

Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fat

Saturated fat and unsaturated fat are distinguished by the chemical composition of their fatty acid chain.

Their construction determines how the body reads, stores, or uses the fats properly. The tighter the chemical bonding, the denser the fat is. For example, saturated fat is very stable because saturated fatty acids do not have a double bond between molecules. Unsaturated fat (the healthiest fat) has at least one double bond, meaning that the fat is less dense at room temperature (liquid fats are denser than the solids; the latter, like ice, float on the liquid) . Stored at room temperature, unsaturated fats are liquid (like olive oil) whereas saturated fats, with a single bond are typically solid (like butter). While unsaturated fat is healthier for your body than saturated fat, you need both to maintain a healthy diet— you just need more unsaturated fat than saturated fat!

Unsaturated Fat = A Good Friend

When unsaturated fats are broken down, they help raise your body’s good cholesterol levels. This is where it gets a little complex but stay with us…

Cholesterol is actually a type of fat. There is both bad and good cholesterol: LDL and HDL.

LDL (low-density lipoprotein) is bad and HDL (high-density lipoprotein) is good. Cholesterol helps your body function properly, but too much of it will put you at risk for a heart attack or stroke.

By minimizing the LDL cholesterol that is present in your blood, unsaturated fats actually help protect your body against the harm that can be caused by excess saturated fats and high cholesterol.

When you eat unsaturated fat your HDL levels increase. This increase enables your cells to grab onto the LDL compounds (bad cholesterol) and carry them to the liver. This process is called reverse cholesterol transport. When the LDL compounds are in the liver, they are properly broken down and eliminated from your body. By minimizing the LDL cholesterol that is present in your blood, unsaturated fats actually help protect your body against the harm that can be caused by excess saturated fats and high cholesterol.

According to the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 73.5 million adults in the United States have high LDL (bad) cholesterol levels, which will negatively affect their long term health.

Saturated Fat = Friendly Acquaintance

Saturated fats do not contain any double bonds in their chemical composition, making them denser than unsaturated fat. Saturated fat can raise your body’s overall cholesterol levels (including LDL cholesterol). The most well-known foods that contain saturated fat are meat and dairy products. Beef and cheese, for example, contain more saturated fatty acids than unsaturated fatty acid.

While it is important to be aware of the amount of saturated fat you consume, there are healthy foods that contain saturated fatty acids. The American Heart Association recommends that roughly 120 calories (5-6%) of our total daily calories come from saturated fat. New research indicates that a diet that incorporates saturated fats may not cause an increased risk for Cardiovascular Disease or Coronary Heart Disease. While this isn’t definitive, it is certainly something to watch!

If you follow the daily recommended intake for both saturated and unsaturated fat and you live an active lifestyle, you will find these fats are more your friend than your enemy.

Fatty Acids…

The famed essential unsaturated fatty acids are: linoleic omega-6 and linoleic omega-3. They are the only two fats your body cannot synthesize from other fatty acids.

Thus, they need to be replenished through your food. In order to get these essential fats you should incorporate sesame seeds and nuts for omega-6 and flax seeds and fatty fish for omega-3. Additionally, you can take supplements to replenish these essential unsaturated fats.

 Within the unsaturated fat “family”, there are different types of fatty acids. As you know, the way fats are classified depends on the chemical composition, and unsaturated fats have at least one double bond—however, it is possible for unsaturated fatty acids to have more than one double bond. Hence, the different types of unsaturated fat. There are 2 main groups of unsaturated fats: polyunsaturated and monounsaturated. Polyunsaturated fatty acids have a handful of double bonds, where as monounsaturated fatty acids only have one. Your body is able to make (or “synthesize”) fatty acids with one or no double bonds. However, the human body is unable to create two types of polyunsaturated fat, which are essential fatty acids in human nutrition.

Trans Fat= Foe

Unlike unsaturated fat and saturated fat, which can be healthily incorporated into your daily regimen, you should be very mindful of trans fats. In fact, you want to avoid partially hydrogenated oils (PHO) as much as possible! PHO is most prevalent in heavily processed foods. Unlike saturated and unsaturated fat, hydrogenated fats are very unnatural substances.

Unlike saturated and unsaturated fat, hydrogenated fats are very unnatural substances.

PHOs were actually created by food processing companies after saturated fat was thought to be detrimental to overall body health. To replace saturated fat, food scientists created trans fat from unsaturated fat. Because unsaturated fat has a shorter shelf life, they needed to make the substance more solid in order to have the same functionality as saturated fats at a lower cost. In order to make the unsaturated fat solid it is hydrogenated. Your body is not familiar with partially hydrogenated oils and thus is not able to properly digest them.

So, what does all this mean for your body?

While fatty acids are present in almost all food to some extent, the amount of each fatty acid indicates its health value. For example, the most heavily prevailing fatty acid in an avocado is oleic acid, which is an unsaturated fat. However, while unsaturated fat is the most prominent fatty acid present, saturated fatty acids are present as well—but this doesn’t mean the food is bad! The weight of saturated fat is roughly 15% while the weight of unsaturated fat is roughly 79%.

In addition to avocados, foods like salmon, seeds, nuts, olive oil, coconut oil, flax, vegetables, and legumes will provide healthy, unsaturated fat that will help maintain your body’s good cholesterol, suppress LDL cholesterol, and keep your cells healthy!

There are many ways to get a variety of good fats. For example, you can consume 2 tablespoons of butter (102 calories per tablespoon), 1/2 a cup of sliced almonds (250 cals), 1 tablespoon of peanut butter (90 cals), and 1 tablespoon of olive oil (118 cals) for 560 calories of fat. This remains within the 400-700 calorie recommended consumption.

We believe a well-balanced diet that includes the recommended amount of healthy fats, paired with exercise and the appropriate amount of sleep, will help keep you healthy.

Luckily, American’s perspective of fat is changing. According to Mintel Market Research, “US consumption rates of butter reached a 40 year high in 2014.” This signifies that Americans are becoming less and less afraid of fat. In fact, in a Mintel 2016 Global Food + Drink Trend entitled “Fat Sheds Stigma”, it is believed that as we become more educated on the health benefits and many different sources of fat, consumers will begin to incorporate foods with a healthy fat content into their diets!

The Bottom Line:

Fat is not the “four letter word” it once was. Your body needs both unsaturated and saturated fat in moderation to stay healthy. Remember: fat provides more energy than protein and carbohydrates. If you are consuming roughly 2,000 calories a day 400-700 of those calories should come from healthy fats!

Resources:

Busch, Sandi. “Breaking Down Unsaturated Vs. Saturated Fats.” Live Healthy. Chron.com, n.d. Web. 10 June 2016.

Bruso, Jessica. “The Type of Fat in an Avocado.” Healthy Eating. SF Gate, n.d. Web. 10 June 2016.

Gunnars, Kris. “10 High-Fat Foods That Are Actually Super Healthy.” Authority Nutrition. N.p., Apr. 2016. Web. 10 June 2016.

Grant, Pia. “Is a Count of 170 Considered High for Cholesterol?” LIVESTRONG.COM. Livestrong, 18 Mar. 2011. Web. 10 June 2016.

“HHS and USDA Release New Dietary Guidelines to Encourage Healthy Eating Patterns to Prevent Chronic Diseases.” Food and Nutrition Service. United States Department of Agriculture, 01 Jan. 2016. Web. 10 June 2016.

“High Cholesterol Facts.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 17 Mar. 2015. Web. 10 June 2016.

Liou, Stephanie. “Fatty Acids.” Stanford University. Huntington’s Outreach Project for Education, June 2010. Web. 10 June 2016.

“Macronutrients: the Importance of Carbohydrate, Protein, and Fat”. McKinley Health Center. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Retrieved 20 September 2014.

Siri-Tarino, Patty, Qi Sun, Frank Hu, and Ronald Krauss. “Meta-analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies Evaluating the Association of Saturated Fat with Cardiovascular Disease.” Meta-analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies Evaluating the Association of Saturated Fat with Cardiovascular Disease. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Nov. 2009. Web. 10 June 2016.

“Trans Fats.” American Heart Organization, Oct. 2015. Web. 10 June 2016.