CocoNUTS

Nov 16, 2016 | Food Ingredients | 0 comments

The Dirt:

What is the obsession with coconuts? This “superfood” hit the mainstream food market in big way a few years ago and has stuck around quite successfully. The products are endless (water, oil, milk, juice, sugar, flour) and each one touts a dense nutritional content of antioxidants, healthy fats, vitamins and minerals…but is it too good to be true?

Coconut products have become exceedingly popular and are available in a variety of forms. From raw products like coconut water, fresh coconut meat, and coconut oil to processed coconut products like coconut palm sugar, coconut flour, and coconut flavoring, consumers are going nuts for this proclaimed “superfood.”
The health claims of coconuts are endless, with all of the following benefits marketed:
High in vitamins
High in minerals
High in fiber
Healthy saturated fat content
Aids digestion
Anti viral and anti fungal properties
Antioxidants
Electrolytes (hydration)

Saturated Fat and Digestion

One of the more controversial claims surrounding coconut products, particularly the products that are made from coconut meat (like coconut oil) is the “healthy fat” claim. As we reviewed in our article “Fat: Our New Friend,” new research indicates that consumption of healthy fats can help increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL), aka good cholesterol, which helps your body regulate overall cholesterol levels and possibly lower your LDL cholesterol levels. According to Harvard Medical School, coconut oil gives your body a good HDL cholesterol boost, which can actually help improve overall blood cholesterol levels.

The most prominent fatty acid in coconut meat is lauric acid, a medium-chain triglyceride (MCT). Lauric acid is considered a healthy saturated fat because of its composition. MCT fatty acids are easily absorbed by the human body. This means the fatty acid it is easily broken down, used for energy, and can help aid digestion.
In fact, according to Mintel Market Research, the American coconut water market alone was valued at $400 million in 2011! It has more than doubled in size every year since 2005. Additionally, there has been a 113% increase in coconut flavored products from 2011 to 2015. Coconut products are officially mainstream and (because of the perceived health benefits) they appear to be here to stay.

But, before we hop on the coconut bandwagon, the D2D team wanted to make sure that these health claims are substantiated by scientific research. While we found many small, short term studies that indicated coconuts are a healthy addition to your diet, there is still a significant need for long term research and human trials to conclude that coconuts can provide these health benefits over time.

A very small study published in 2003 by the Journal of Nutrition followed 11 women over a 20-22 day period and studied the affects of high-fat versus low-fat coconut oil consumption. The research found that the women who consumed high fat coconut oil demonstrated the biggest reduction in inflammation markers as well as markers for heart disease risk. (And as we discussed in “Are You Inflamed?”, chronic inflammation negatively affects overall body health.)

As with all fats, the important thing to remember is overconsumption can cause cholesterol to rise—even if you are overconsuming healthy fats! Every individual is different and if you are prone to high levels of cholesterol, consuming healthy saturated fat can cause an increase in your LDL cholesterol, which is something you want to avoid. Additionally, definitive research on the health content of coconut oil only exists in the short term, so there is no certainty over how the high fat content of coconut oil affects heart disease or long term heart health.

Although the healthy fat composition of MCT fatty acids* has been confirmed, coconut meat and oil should be consumed or used in moderation. Simply adding fat to your diet can cause an increase in your overall caloric intake, which would cause you to gain weight. It is important to examine your diet as a whole and see if you need the additional fat content before adding it to your routine. But, if you are replacing coconut fat with the saturated fat from butter, for example, it is possible that your LDL cholesterol will begin to decrease because coconut oil is easier for your body to digest.

*MCT fatty acids are not digested in the same manner as traditional saturated fats. Instead of entering your digestive system, being processed, and either being metabolized or stored as fat, MCT fatty acids are digested more easily, processed by your liver, and can be more efficiently used for energy. To put this into perspective, 1 tablespoon of coconut oil contains approximately 11 grams of saturated fat, with roughly 7 of those grams being MCTs, whereas 1 tablespoon of butter provides only 1 gram of MCTs per approximately 7 grams of saturated fat. Thus, coconut oil is easier to digest. Keep in mind, according to the American Heart Association, if you adhere to a 2,000 calorie per day diet, you should be consuming no more than 16 grams of saturated fat per day.

Anti-fungal and Anti-bacterial

Beyond the cholesterol and potential weight loss benefits of healthy fatty acids, the fat content of coconuts is also believed to have anti-bacterial properties. In a 2004 study published by the Journal of Medicinal Food, the antimicrobial properties of coconuts was proven to be a treatment of fungal infections. The lauric acid content of coconuts is believed to “kill harmful bacteria, viruses, and fungi.” However, there is a lack of research to substantiate this claim. While the fatty acid in coconut may have some antibacterial properties, there is no long term research that determine using coconut oil as an antibacterial cream will suffice.

Antioxidant, Electrolytes, Vitamins and Minerals…oh my!

One of the biggest health benefits and one of the biggest reasons to drink coconut water or coconut milk is the vitamin and mineral profile. Coconut water is the water found inside a young coconut whereas coconut milk is made from grated coconut meat. Coconuts are particularly high in B vitamins, like B6, B2 (riboflavin), and B1 (thiamine). B vitamins are a good source of energy and can give your body a quick pick me up. Coconut meat is also high in vitamin C, which helps the immune system stay healthy. Vitamin C consumption is especially important during cold and flu season. Vitamin C is also an antioxidant and helps aid digestion.

In addition to a rich vitamin complex, coconuts have a dense mineral content. These minerals include, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorous, manganese, iron, and calcium. Of these minerals, potassium, calcium, sodium, phosphorous, and magnesium are electrolytes. These positive ions help your body stay hydrated.

Potassium is arguably the most important electrolyte inside your cells. It is known to help regulate muscle function and maintain healthy cells. If you lead and active lifestyle, coconut water is a great addition to your routine—especially if you are supplementing it for a more refined sports drink. Gatorade, for example, has only 65mg of potassium per serving, whereas one serving of coconut water offers 600mg of potassium!
Coconut provides significantly higher electrolytes compared to the average sports drink. For example, let’s look at Gatorade versus the average serving of coconut water…
One serving of “Thirst Quencher” Gatorade Vs. One serving of pure coconut water
o  Potassium: 40mg    Vs.       600mg
o   Magnesium: 0 mg   Vs.      60mg
o   Phosphorus: 5mg    Vs.      48mg
o  Sodium: 250mg        Vs.      252 mg
o  Calcium:  <5mg       Vs.      57 mg

Source: Coco Vida

Coconut water contains five important electrolytes:

Potassium: regulates heartbeat and muscle function. 

Sodium: easily depleted with exercise.

Magnesium: helps maintain healthy cells, aids muscle function, and prevents calcium buildup.

Phosphorus: supports bone health, and helps your body transfer energy. 

Calcium: important for bone health.

(Source)

These minerals may also be good for your blood pressure as high potassium content can balance some of the negative effects of sodium. A 2005 study published by the West Indian Medical Journal found that 71% of participants that were given coconut water experienced a decrease in blood pressure.

Lastly, coconuts are believed to have a strong antioxidant component. But, as we learned in our recent article on chocolate, antioxidant content is very complex. Unfortunately, there is very little research that proves the effects of antioxidants in the human body. However, in a 2007 study performed over a 45 day period on rats, researchers at the University of Kerala found that animals fed virgin coconut oil had higher antioxidant vitamin levels at the end of the study than the animals fed sunflower oil or copra oil (which is oil from more mature coconuts). Additionally, a 2013 study conducted in Brazil determined green dwarf coconuts exhibited antioxidant properties.

There are many health benefits associated with the consumption of coconut. However, when incorporating coconut into your diet, there are a few things to keep in mind if you are buying processed products…

These various health claims are often associated with different coconut products. Coconut meat is high in fat, dietary fiber, and minerals such as manganese, zinc, iron, and phosphorous. Coconut water, on the other hand, contains the same minerals as well as amino acids, electrolytes, and B-complex vitamins.

Be sure to stick to the raw, unrefined options. Unprocessed coconuts (both juice and meat) will provide a host of nutritional benefits, however you also want to follow the serving size! For example, one serving of coconut water (8 ounces) provides provides roughly 14 grams of sugar. As we have discussed in “Sugar is Sugar”, that is roughly half of the added sugar recommended per day.

Processed coconut products are what you need to be particularly mindful of. One cup of store-bought coconut milk, for example, provides 57 grams of fat (51 of those being saturated fat) and 522 calories. That is 255% of the recommended daily value of saturated fat. However, the sugar content is less in coconut milk than in coconut water, with roughly 8 grams in a serving.

Source: Harmless Harvest

Of course there will often be overlap as consumer products are being made with the same base ingredient: raw coconut. If you are consuming coconut products regularly, you might not be getting all of the aforementioned health benefits and you should be sure to check the nutrition panel to confirm the percent of daily value for these components.

When buying coconut products, be sure to look for unrefined (or virgin) products, as they are made with the freshest coconuts and typically contain the most nutrients. It is also important to look out for products that have a fair trade certification, which ensures that the coconuts are grown sustainably.

The Bottom Line:

The health benefits reliably associated with the consumption of coconut are the vitamins, minerals, and electrolytes. When incorporating coconut into your diet, you want to make sure the products are unrefined. These nutritional benefits can also come with a high sugar and fat content. Therefore, coconuts should be consumed in moderation! Be aware of the sugar and fat content you already have in your diet before adding coconut to your routine.

Sources:

Busch, Sandi. “List of Foods That Contain Medium-Chain Triglycerides.” Livestrong.com. Livestrong, 17 Apr. 2015. Web.

Clark, Melissa. “Once a Villain, Coconut Oil Charms the Health Food World.” New York Times. New York Times, 1 Mar. 2011. Web.

Dannie, Marie. “Lauric Acid’s Benefits for the Body.” Livestrong.com. Livestrong, 11 May 2015. Web. 16 Nov. 2016.

Iliades, Chris. “4 Essential Vitamins for Digestive Health.” EverydayHealth.com. Everyday Health, 25 June 2015. Web. 16 Nov. 2016.

“Is Coconut Oil A ‘Miracle’ Food?” Berkeley Wellness. University of California, Berkeley, 06 Nov. 2014. Web. 16 Nov. 2016.

Kabara, Jon J., Dennis M. Swieczkowski, Anthony J. Conley, and Joseph P. Truant. “Fatty Acids and Derivatives as Antimicrobial Agents.” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2 July 1972. Web. 16 Nov. 2016.

Mercola, Joseph, MD. “Why Coconut Water Is The Best Sports Drink.” Mercola.com. N.p., 27 Nov. 2011. Web. 16 Nov. 2016.

Müller, H., AS Lindman, A. Blomfeldt, and JI Pedersen. “A Diet Rich in Coconut Oil Reduces Diurnal Postprandial Variations in Circulating Tissue Plasminogen Activator Antigen and Fasting Lipoprotein (a) Compared with a Diet Rich in Unsaturated Fat in Women.” National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, Nov. 2003. Web. 16 Nov. 2016.

Nevin, K.G., and T. Rajamohan. “Influence of Virgin Coconut Oil on Blood Coagulation Factors, Lipid Levels and LDL Oxidation in Cholesterol Fed Sprague–Dawley Rats.” E-Spen Journal. Department of Biochemistry, University of Kerala, Feb. 2008. Web. 16 Nov. 2016.

Ogbolu, DO, AA Oni, OA Daini, and AP Oloko. “In Vitro Antimicrobial Properties of Coconut Oil on Candida Species in Ibadan, Nigeria.” National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 10 June 2007. Web. 16 Nov. 2016.

Santos, JL, VL Bispo, AB Vilho, IF Pinto, and Et. Al. “Evaluation of Chemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Coconut Water (Cocus Nucifera L.) and Caffeic Acid in Cell Culture.” National Center for Biotechnology Information. U.S. National Library of Medicine, 29 Sept. 2007. Web. 16 Nov. 2016.

Spritzler, Franziska, RD, CDE. “13 Studies on Coconut Oil and Its Health Effects.” Authority Nutrition. N.p., 2016. Web. 16 Nov. 2016.

Whitam, Katya. “Coconut Palm Sugar Sees Widening Usage in Germany.” Mintel Food & Drink. Mintel, July 2016. Web.

Willett, Walter C., MD. “Ask the Doctor: Coconut Oil.” Harvard Health. Harvard Medical School, 18 Mar. 2016. Web. 16 Nov. 2016.